The second edition of Iraq: People, History, Politics provides a comprehensive analysis of the political, societal, and economic dynamics that have governed Iraq?s modern development. Situating recent events within a longer historical timeframe, this book is a must-read for anyone wanting to understand the deep histories that underpin the contemporary politics of this war-torn and troubled state.
Abbreviations and Glossary
ADM Assyrian Democratic Movement. Political party representing Chaldo-Assyrian community, headed by Younadam Youssef Kanna. Al-Qaeda (Iraq) Sunni Islamist organization attacking foreign influences in Muslim countries. Headed by Ayman al-Zawahiri following the death of Osama bin Laden. Al-Qaeda Iraq (AQI - or tanzim qa'idat al-Jihad fi bilad al-Rafidayn ) headed by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi until his death in 2006, and formed basis of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) that led to the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), then the Islamic State (IS). Anfal Codename of Government of Iraq campaign in 1987-88 for systematic depopulation of rural Kurdistan. Anfal refers to the eighth sura of the Quran. Ansar al-Islam Partisans of Islam. Kurdish Islamist group that formed part of the Ansar al-Sunnah group that emerged in the years following regime change. Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq League of the Righteous. Shii militia group led by Qais Al-Khazali. Formed in 2006 as splinter of Mahdi Army and fought against US forces. Close relationship with Iranian IRGC, and, since 2014, part of the Hashed al-Sha'abi . Ayatollah Literally, 'Sign of God'. Highest clerical rank in Shii religious establishment. Badr Organization Originally the military wing of SCIRI then ISCI. Operates independently as a Shii militia headed by Hadi Al-Amiri. The Badr organization is part of the Hashed al-Sha'bi . Bath Party Arab Socialist Bath Party. Founded in 1947 as a secular Arab nationalist party by Michel Aflaq. Came to power in Iraq in 1963 coup, then again in 1968 when Saddam Hussein quickly became the leading figure. Caliphate An Islamic government led by a caliph ( Khalifa in Arabic). The caliph has to be recognized as a successor to the Prophet Mohammed and would then lead the worldwide Muslim community. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi proclaimed himself caliph in Mosul in July 2014, but has not received global recognition among Muslims as being a legitimate caliph. CIA (US) Central Intelligence Agency. CPA Coalition Provisional Authority. Replaced ORHA. Headed by Ambassador L. Paul Bremer III. Dawa Hizb al-Dawa Islamiyya (Party of the Islamic Call). Shii party formed in late 1950s under guidance of Ayatollah Mohammed Baqr Al-Sadr. Fractured into several wings. Prominent figures include Haidar Al-Abadi, Nouri Al-Maliki and Ibrahim Al-Jafari. Hashed al-Sha'abi People's Mobilization Forces (PMF). Umbrella Shii militia organization formed in 2014 in response to rise of ISIS. Overall Chairman is Dr Falih Al-Fayyadh. Most prominent components include Asaib Ahl al-Haq , Badr Organization, Peace Companies and Kata'ib al-Imam Ali . hawza More fully, hawza al-marja'iyya . The religious establishment surrounding the leading clerical figures of Shiism. GDP Gross Domestic Product. GNP Gross National Product. IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency. ICP Iraqi Communist Party. Formed in 1934. IGC Iraqi Governing Council. Appointed by CPA to prov