The book will cover the major principles of investor psychology, including heuristics, bounded rationality, regret theory, mental accounting, framing, prospect theory, and loss aversion. Specific sections of the book will delve into the role of personality traits, financial therapy, retirement planning, financial coaching, and emotions in investment decisions. Other topics covered include risk perception and tolerance, asset allocation decisions under inertia and inattention bias; evidenced based financial planning, motivation and satisfaction, behavioral investment management, and neurofinance. Contributions will delve into the behavioral underpinnings of various trading and investment topics including trader psychology, stock momentum, earnings surprises, and anomalies. The final chapters of the book examine new research on socially responsible investing, mutual funds, and real estate investing from a behavioral perspective. Empirical evidence and current literature about each type of investment issue are featured. Cited research studies are presented in a straightforward manner focusing on the comprehension of study findings, rather than on the details of mathematical frameworks.
H. KENT BAKER is University Professor of Finance at American University's Kogod School of Business in Washington, DC. As one of the most prolific finance academics, he has authored or edited 21 books and published more than 150 refereed articles. He has consulting and training experience with more than 100 organizations, serves on multiple editorial boards, and is the Past President of the Southern Finance Association. Professor Baker holds eight earned degrees including three doctorates as well as CFA and CMA designations.
VICTOR RICCIARDI specializes in current trends in behavioral finance. As Assistant Professor of Financial Management at Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland, he has made important contributions to understanding the psychology of investing. Professor Ricciardi also serves as Coordinator of Behavioral and Experimental Research for the Social Science Research Network (SSRN). He edits several SSRN eJournals related to behavioral finance, financial history, behavioral economics, risk-taking behavior, and behavioral accounting.
Investor Behavior: An Overview
H. Kent Baker
University Professor of Finance, Kogod School of Business, American University
Assistant Professor of Financial Management, Department of Business Management, Goucher College
In the 1990s, the terms behavioral finance and behavioral economics started to appear in academic journals for finance professors, practitioner publications for investment professionals, investing magazines for novice investors, and everyday newspapers read by the general public (Ricciardi and Simon 2000). The foundation of behavioral finance and the subtopic of investor behavior, however, can be traced back throughout financial history in events such as the speculative behavior during tulip mania in the 1600s. Books published in the 1800s and early 1900s about psychology and investing marked the beginning of the theoretical basis for today's theories and concepts about investor behavior (Ricciardi 2006). Finance and the role of money are fundamental underpinnings of many important events throughout history (Ferguson 2008) and the development of financial innovations (Goetzmann and Rouwenhorst 2005). For example, Bernstein (1996) provides an extensive time line of risk throughout history and its application in the world of finance. Another important work in this arena is Rubinstein (2006), who depicts a historical anthology of investment theory. In recent times, the Internet stock market bubble of the late 1990s and the financial crisis of 2007 and 2008 demonstrate the importance of understanding investment behavior (Reinhart and Rogoff 2011).
Relevant Books in the History of Finance and Investment Thought
Understanding the history of finance and the development of investment theory is important for all types of investors. Goetzmann and Rouwenhorst (2005), Rubinstein (2006), and Ferguson (2008) offer extensive discussions of books and other publications in financial history and investment theory. The next section provides a discussion of important books in the history of finance and the natural progression of understanding investor theory and behavior. Exhibit 1.1 provides a chronological timeline of a sample of noteworthy books in financial history and investment theory from 1841 to 1978. This list of books is merely illustrative of classic or seminal works.
Exhibit 1.1 A Sample of Relevant Books in Financial History and Investment Theory
Period: 1841 to 1912
Initially published in 1841, Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (MacKay 1980) depicts the role of bubbles and panics that is still applicable for investor psychology. Published in the late 1800s, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (Le Bon 1982) describes the role of group behavior in different environments and markets. Published in 1903, Trust Finance: A Study of the Genesis, Organization, and Management of Industrial Combinations (Meade 2003) describes the importance of trust in a wide range of areas including corporate finance, financial services, and investments. Where the Money Grows and Anatomy of the Bubble (Garrett 1998), published in 1911, presents the role of different stakeholders involved in the investment management process on Wall Street. The Psychology of the Stock Market (Selden 1996), published in 1912, represents one of the first books that applied psychology to the decision-making process of investors. Selden's book describes the behavioral and emotional issues that influence traders and investors in the stock market.
Period: 1922 to 1938
Published in 1922, The Stock Market Barometer (Hamilton 1998) discloses the approach known as the Dow Theory, which is based on stoc