Co-operative Enterprise Building a Better World
Biography of Terry MacDonald (co-author) Terry MacDonald, currently a Managing Director of the Global Co-operative Development Group Inc., began his co-operative career in a credit union as a teller. Since that time he has held a variety of positions within the Canadian credit union system ranging from Head of Research for Credit Union Central of Saskatchewan, to General Manager of CULease Financial, a national Canadian credit union system leasing business which he helped to create, to Africa Region Director for the Canadian Co-operative Association. Biography of Gregory Wallace (co-author) Gregory Wallace ('Greg') has served within and across the credit union and co-operative systems in Canada and internationally for more than 40 years. His career has taken him from managing a local credit union to serving as the Chief Financial Officer of a 15 billion dollar national financial co-operative. He has served on numerous second-tier co-operative boards and committees across Canada. Biography of Ian MacPherson (co-author) Ian MacPherson, Professor Emeritus of History, is a former Department Chair, Dean of Humanities, and Director of the British Columbia Institute for Co-operative Studies at the University of Victoria. He has written, edited, and co-edited twenty books as well as some 150 articles.
Co-operative Enterprise Building a Better World
Craig's Take on Co-operation, Competition, and Conflict
John G. Craig , also known as John (Jack) Craig,  a former university professor and author of various papers and books on co-operation and co-operatives, introduces us to the notion of co-operation from both a sociological and an organizational perspective. Craig, who has throughout his lifetime studied co-operation and co-operative organizations in Canada and internationally, is able to give us a more in-depth look at what co-operation actually involves.
Craig begins by reaffirming and elaborating on what Kropotkin had said some 120 years earlier. In short, those species that co-operate the most survive and flourish. In terms of the human species man has been living in clans and tribes since the dawn of the early Stone Age and from that time until the present, people have continued to build co-operative relations based on mutual aid.
Co-operation, as more formally and perhaps more broadly defined by Craig, can include almost all of those forms of human interaction which sociologists refer to as social organization. Co-operation as a concept can be broken down into a variety of types, with more specific and precise meanings. The different types which Craig identifies are as follows: 
Automatic co-operation refers to those co-ordinated activities or joint efforts of an impersonal nature which take place between individuals in physical proximity to each other. It is unplanned and often unnoticed by its participants. It may occur as a group response to a common threat or simply as a response to an ordinary situation in which individuals have learned to co-operate. Examples of automatic co-operation are queuing at bus stops and supermarket check-out counters, and the movement of people in and out of crowded elevators.
Spontaneous co-operation is perhaps the oldest and most natural form of co-operation in human interaction. It is also the most widespread in everyday life. Its basis is the friendly relationships that often exits between individuals, and it is un-prescribed by tradition, contract, or command. This type of co-operation takes place within the family, in neighbourhood groups and play groups, and through other close personal forms of association. Small group research, family studies and research into friendship groups have provided considerable information on the occurrence of spontaneous co-operation in a variety of settings. In these settings, when common action is required, individuals are generally quick to co-operate because of the strength of the social ties between them.
Traditional co-operation is regulated, not by instinct, volition nor circumstance, but rather by the traditional social norms of the participants. It is often part of the moral fabric of the community and is described in community traditions. Examples of traditional co-operation include the sharing of food in hunting and gathering cultures, community barn-raisings, and volunteer fire brigades, as well as the organization of much of communal life. In these cases, co-operative behaviour may be regarded as simply the moral and correct way of living.
Directed co-operation is based on demand. There is a clear and well-accepted goal, and individuals are directed to co-operate in order to achieve that goal. An important example of directed co-operation is found in a military organization whose goal is to win a battle. Soldiers are commanded to co-operate, in accorda