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Plant Environment Interaction Responses and Approaches to Mitigate Stress von Mahgoub Azooz, Mohamed (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 30.11.2015
  • Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
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Plant Environment Interaction

The increase in global population, urbanization and industrialization is resulting in the conversion of cultivated land into wasteland. Providing food from these limited resources to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that present agriculturalists and plant scientists are facing. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Plants on which mankind is directly or indirectly dependent exhibit various mechanisms for their survival. Adaptability of the plants to changing environment is a matter of concern for plant biologists trying to reach the goal of food security. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to withstand these environmental extremes. Using new technological approaches has become essential and imperative. Plant-Environment Interaction: Responses and Approaches to Mitigate Stress throws light on the changing environment and the sustainability of plants under these conditions. It contains the most up-to-date research and comprehensive detailed discussions in plant physiology, climate change, agronomy and forestry, sometimes from a molecular point of view, to convey in-depth understanding of the effects of environmental stress in plants, their responses to the environment, how to mitigate the negative effects and improve yield under stress. This edited volume is written by expert plant biologists from around the world, providing invaluable knowledge to graduate and undergraduate students in plant biochemistry, food chemistry, plant physiology, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, and environmental sciences. This book updates scientists and researchers with the very latest information and sustainable methods used for stress tolerance, which will also be of considerable interest to plant based companies and institutions concerned with the campaign of food security. Professor Mohamed Mahgoub Azooz, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Quena, Egypt Dr Parvaiz Ahmad. Department of Botany, S.P. College, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Produktinformationen

    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 368
    Erscheinungsdatum: 30.11.2015
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781119081029
    Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
    Größe: 10003 kBytes
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Plant Environment Interaction

CHAPTER 1
Biotechnological applications to improve salinity stress in wheat

Sami ullah Jan1, Ghulam Kubra1, Mehreen Naz2, Ifrah Shafqat2, Muhammad Asif Shahzad1, Fakiha Afzal1 and Alvina Gul Kazi1

1 Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

2 Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
1.1 Introduction

For food, humans rely on approximately 275 crops (Tilman et al ., 2011). Out of these, three crops, wheat, maize and rice, are significant cereal crops that contribute to major dietary requirements as staple foods for humans - a reason why they are collectively termed the 'big three cereal crops' (Shewry, 2009). Comparatively, wheat is the most important cereal crop that contributes a major portion of the daily diet for humans (Slade et al ., 2012). It is estimated that wheat is a source for one-fifth of total calories utilized by humans globally (Waines & Ehdaie, 2007). Wheat grains contain vital constituents such as carbohydrates, including 60-70% starch (Slade et al ., 2012) and 8-15% protein such as glutenin (Shewry et al ., 1995) and gliadin (D'Ovidio & Masci, 2004). From the total wheat grain produced globally, 65% is utilized as food by humans while the remaining 35% is distributed among livestock feed (21%), seed material (8%) and raw material (6%) in industries such as the production of vitamins and antibiotics, manufacturing of paper; it is also used as a fermentation substrate or as adhesives in various products (Shewry & Jones, 2005).
1.1.1 History of wheat: from domestication to revolutions

In ancient times, wheat was a product of the activities of hunter-gatherers but about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution laid the basis for domestication of various crops (Waines & Ehdaie, 2007). This domestication process focused mainly upon cereal crops, and wheat is considered the originator of domesticated crops (Peleg et al ., 2011). With the passing of time, problems arising in the domestication process compelled scientists to analyse and study various concerns such as local conditions, yield maximization, development of improved cultivars and storage techniques (Cavanagh et al ., 2013). Eventually, these findings resulted in major events such as the Agricultural Revolution in the 19th century (Godfray et al ., 2010) and the Green Revolution in the 20th century (Waines & Ehdaie, 2007).

Wheat domestication followed by major revolutions and scientific achievements contributed to speciation and initiation of new varieties (Shewry, 2009). The factors involved in such speciation primarily include adaptations to the ecology of an area as soon as wild-type wheat cultivars were moved for domestication purposes (Chaudhary, 2013). These adaptations under the influence of epigenetics offered the opportunity to select the desired traits in wheat such as yield, grain quality, grain size and many other phenotypic attributes (Burger et al ., 2008). Thus, wheat evolved into many varieties in response to human cultivation practices, selection procedures and the phenomena of epigenetics (Fuller, 2007).

Since the Green Revolution, technologies have been incorporated into crop improvement practices, specifically wheat, in various ways (Schmidhuber & Tubiello, 2007). These include successful development of hybrids with enhanced desired traits, development of pathogen-resistant plants, enhanced yield, improved nutrient contents, affordable fertilizer requirements and improved irrigation systems (Godfray et al ., 2010). The consequences of all aspects of the Green Revolution increased yield to fulfil the world's food requirements (Tilman et al ., 2011).
1.1.2 Wheat genome

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