Natural Products Analysis
Natural Products Analysis
Natural Products Analysis : Instrumentation, Methods, and Applications
Vladimír Havlíček and Jaroslav Spížek
Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
This book aims at highlighting the newest trends in analytical chemistry that have recently been, or soon will be, employed in the analysis of natural products and their complex mixtures. All contributing authors were motivated to stress the innovative aspects in emerging natural product chemistries and were asked to formulate their own personal visions clearly indicating which milestones can be achieved in their fields of expertise in a five-year frame. The book is structured according to analytical instrumental approaches used either routinely or experimentally for structure characterization and/or determination of both low- and high-molecular-weight natural products.
1.1 BOOK MOTIVATION
This book enumerates the most recent and cutting-edge analytical approaches including those that have not yet been commercialized into the rejuvenated natural products field. For example, less-traditional applications of synchrotron irradiation to small molecules are reported when referring to standard X-ray diffraction. Likewise, examples of the newest hyphenation techniques with impact on screening and secondary metabolism studies are described in cases in which well-known multidimensional NMR spectroscopy is discussed.
The revitalization of the natural product field is documented by an increase in the number of peer-reviewed articles illustrated by a Web of Science search ( Figure 1.1 ). The number of hits is seen to have increased threefold if the term "natural product activity" is evaluated. Antibacterial, antifungal, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, and other activities are also reported in patent literature. SciFinder returned constant data for the 2007–2013 period oscillating between 60 and 80 patent applications published annually. Diverse applications of natural products are also subjects of many review articles and book chapters. Interestingly, no monograph focused on instrumentation used for identification of natural products has been published in the past decade. This market gap was identified by Wiley senior editor Jonathan T. Rose: "In my opinion, given that plants and natural products are major sources for current and potential drugs, there is need for a book geared to researchers and professionals to facilitate natural product analysis, synthesis, and drug discovery. This type of book could explain the basics of natural products as pharmaceuticals, analytical tools and techniques, methods for isolation and elucidation, and applications for library design and in drug discovery. Such a book will find a welcome audience in organic and medicinal chemists, biochemists, analytical and medicinal chemists, microbiologists, and biomedical researchers."
Figure 1.1 Report of published items accessed from the Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters) on December 31, 2013 illustrates the number of papers published annually in the field of "Natural Product Structure."
In this book the instrumentation represents the common denominator. The contributors were motivated to make a very brief introduction to physicochemical principles of their methods and give an up-to-date overview of the most important applications relevant to natural products. In a limited number of chapters the tutorial part was extended, giving the reader the opportunity to get acquainted with both the fundamentals and future trends in one place. Personal views and mutual instrumental evaluations will help the newcomers to find a suitable technique. For instance, whereas nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is nonselective and less sensitive (&ldq