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Chiral Nanomaterials Preparation, Properties and Applications

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Chiral Nanomaterials

Thorough and up-to-date, this book presents recent developments in this exciting research field. To begin with, the text covers the fabrication of chiral nanomaterials via various synthesis methods, including electron beam lithography, ion beam etching, chemical synthesis and biological DNA directed assembly. This is followed by the relevant theory and reaction mechanisms, with a discussion of the characterization of chiral nanomaterials according to the optical properties of metal nanoparticles, semiconductor nanocrystals, and nanoclusters. The whole is rounded off by a summary of applications in the field of catalysis, sensors, and biomedicine. With its comprehensive yet concise coverage of the whole spectrum of research, this is invaluable reading for senior researchers and entrants to the field of nanoscience and materials science. Prof. Zhiyong Tang obtained his PhD degree in 1999 from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. After this, he went to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland, and to the University of Michigan, USA, for his postdoctoral research. In November of 2006, he joined the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST) in China and took up a full professor position. His current research interests focus on fabrication and application of chiral inorganic nanoparticles as well as nanoparticle superstructures.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 650
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9783527684304
    Verlag: Wiley-VCH
    Größe: 26771 kBytes
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Chiral Nanomaterials

Chapter 1
An Introduction to Chiral Nanomaterials: Origin, Construction, and Optical Application

Zhengtao Li, Lin Shi and Zhiyong Tang

The National Center for Nanoscience & Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing, 100190, China
1.1 Introduction

Chirality has aroused extensive interest in both science and technology since its first observation in the early nineteenth century [1-3]. Generally speaking, chirality is related to a structure without Sn symmetry elements, such as mirror plane (s), and inversion ( i ) symmetry. For instance, an organic molecule with chiral carbon atom that is connected with four different functional groups is a typical chiral system ( Figure 1.1 ). Understanding chirality at molecular level has led to enormous growth in multidisciplinary fields. In biology, it is believed to be one of the keys for understanding the life origin and evolution [4]. Two basic biomolecule building blocks, amino acid (l-form) and nucleotide (d-form) of homochirality, assemble into second- or higher-order structures, which could further evolve into different functional organisms. In medicine, many synthetic drugs of the specific chirality could be used to cure disease, whereas its isomer acts in the opposite way [5, 6]. Accordingly, chiral organic synthesis based on catalysis and postseparation has become one of the hottest research topics in chemistry [7-9]. Tremendous advances have been achieved in preparation of chiral drugs, and even the full synthesis of chiral biomacromolecules is available [10].

Figure 1.1 Scheme of chiral organic molecules.

Extending the chirality from molecules to nanomaterials is bringing many new opportunities for the chiral study [11, 12]. Nanomaterials of the sizes ranging from 0.5 to 100 nm actually act as a bridge for the chiral study between molecules and bulk materials. The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials could be easily tuned by altering their size, shape, or ingredient, providing a powerful platform for exploring the chiral properties [13-15]. For example, we can manipulate the chiral optical activity to any target wavelength just by controlling the size of nanomaterials, which is difficult and troublesome for organic molecules [16]. Furthermore, additional action modes such as multipole-multipole coupling [17, 18], which are normally ignored in small molecules and become increasingly important in nanoscale objects, are bringing new insights into conventional chiral optics mainly based on dipole-dipole interaction. Except for fundamental research, chiral nanomaterials offer potential novel applications [19]. As an example, grafting chiral biomolecules onto the nanomaterial surfaces might generate multifunctional binding sites, which are more efficient to crosslink with surface receptors. Therefore, nanomaterials not only act as the simple carriers of chiral biomolecules but also play an active role in biomedical applications [20]. Our recent work has distinguished the obvious difference in the interaction efficiency between the living cells and the nanoparticles modified with biomolecules of the opposite chirality [21].

In the last five years, we witnessed many outstanding works about synthesis, property, and application of the chiral nanomaterials, and some excellent reviews related to this topic have been published [3, 11, 12, 22, 23]. It should be noted that most previous publications are focused on introduction of the chiral properties of the nanostructures obtained with the help of organic molecular assemblies [1, 24-26], and nevertheless there is absence of systematic summary on chiral noble metal structures, especially Au and Ag nanoparticles, though they have been proved to possess very specific optical activity. Here, we will summarize the-state-of-art progress of chiral noble metal na

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