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Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites Zero- to Three-Dimensional Materials and Their Composites

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 01.04.2016
  • Verlag: Wiley-VCH
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Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites

Nanomaterials are defined as materials in which at least one length dimension is below 100 nanometers. In this size regime, these materials exhibit particular - and tunable - optical, electrical or mechanical properties that are not present at the macro-scale. This opens up the possibility for a plethora of applications at the interface of materials, chemistry, physics and biology, many of which have already entered the commercial realm. When nanomaterials are blended with other materials not necessarily in the nanometer regime, the resulting nanocomposites can exhibit dramatically different properties than the bulk material alone, leading to an enhanced performance in terms of, for example, increased thermal and mechanical stability. This book presents the synthesis, characterization and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites, covering zero-dimensional, elemental nanoparticles, one-dimensional materials such as nanorods and nanowhiskers, two-dimensional materials such as graphene and boron nitride as well as three-dimensional materials such as fullerenes, polyhedral oligomers and zeolites, complemented by bio-based nanomaterials, e.g., cellulose, chitin, starch and proteins. Introductory chapters on the state-of-the-art of nanomaterial research and the chemistry and physics in nanoscience and nanotechnology round off the book. Visakh P.M. is a Senior Researcher at the School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, India, and currently Visiting Researcher in the Department of Agronomy at the University of Lisbon, Portugal. He has been invited as a visiting student/researcher to approximately fifteen European universities and is a prolific editor with seven books already published. His research interests include polymer nanocomposites, bio-nanocomposites, and rubber-based nanocomposites, fire-retardant polymers, and liquid crystalline polymers as well as silicon sensors. Maria José Martinez Morlanes gained her PhD in polymer science from the University Zaragoza, Spain where she is now an assistant professor.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 300
    Erscheinungsdatum: 01.04.2016
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9783527683765
    Verlag: Wiley-VCH
    Größe: 23434 kBytes
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Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites

Chapter 1
Introduction for Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites: State of Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities

P. M. Visakh
1.1 Chemistry of Nanoscience and Technology

Science uses methodologies from synthetic chemistry and materials chemistry to obtain nanomaterials in specific sizes and shapes, with specific surface properties, defects, and self-assembly properties, designed to accomplish specific functions and uses [1]. Nanoscale is usually defined as being smaller than 1/10th of a micrometer in at least one dimension; this term is also used for materials smaller than 1 µm. An important aspect of nanomaterials is the vast increase in the surface area to volume ratio, which incorporates the possibilities of new quantum mechanical effects in such materials. Suspensions of nanoparticles are possible because the interaction of the particle surface with the solvent molecules is strong enough to overcome differences in density, which usually results from a material either sinking or floating in a liquid. Nanoparticles often have unexpected visual properties because they are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects. Nanostructured materials are classified as zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, two-dimensional, three-dimensional nanostructures. Nanomaterials are materials that are characterized by an ultrafine grain size (<50 nm) or by a dimensionality that is limited to 50 nm. Nanomaterials can be created with various modulation dimensionalities as defined by Richard W. Siegel: zero (atomic clusters, filaments, and cluster assemblies), one (multilayers), two (ultrafine-grained overlayers or buried layers), and three (nanophase materials consisting of equiaxed nanometer-sized grains). Recently, researchers are using a modified CVD technique for the fabrication of 0D Nanostructured materials (NSMs) [2, 3].

Palgrave and Parkin [4] used the aerosol-assisted CVD technique to fabricate the Au nanoparticles on a glass substrate. Toluene is used as a precursor to deposit gold nanoparticles onto glass. The sizes of Au nanoparticles are 100 nm. Boyd et al . [5] developed a new CVD process that can be used to selectively deposit materials of many different types. In this technique, they used the Plasmon resonance in nanoscale structures to create the local heating, which is crucial in order to initiate deposition when illuminated by a focused low-power laser [6]. Elihn et al . [7] synthesized the iron nanoparticles enclosed in carbon shells by laser-assisted chemical vapor decomposition (LCVD) of ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) vapor in the presence of the Ar gas. One-dimensional nanomaterials have nanoscale sizes along two-dimensions and a rod-like or wire-like appearance. In such nanomaterials, quantum confinement and surface area-related nanoscale effects are more pronounced compared to 2D nanomaterials. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) template-assisted synthesis is one of the most facile and most applied methods for the synthesis of 1D NSMs such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoribbons, and nanospindles [8-12]. Kijima et al . [12] fabricated the platinum, palladium, and silver nanotubes, with inner diameters of 3-4 nm and outer diameters of 6-7 nm, by the reduction of metal salts confined to lyotropic mixed Liquid Crystals (LCs) of two different sized surfactants.

Electrodeposition processes have a wide range of advantages such as low cost, low energy consumption, high growth rate at relatively low temperatures, being environmentally friendly, and having good control of the deposition thickness, shape, and size. Xia et al . [13] fabricated the MnO2 nanotube and nanowire arrays via an electrochemical deposition technique using porous alumina templates. Tang et al . [14] prepared the Si nanowires on Si substrates by the hydrothermal deposition route under low temperature and pres

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