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Strategies for Reducing Drug and Chemical Residues in Food Animals International Approaches to Residue Avoidance, Management, and Testing von Baynes, Ronald E. (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 06.08.2014
  • Verlag: Wiley
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Strategies for Reducing Drug and Chemical Residues in Food Animals

Highlighting international approaches; the book details strategies to minimize contamination, residue monitoring programs, and classes of drugs and chemicals that pose contaminant risk in livestock. - Focuses attention on drug and chemical residues in edible animal products - Covers novel computational, statistical, and mathematical strategies for dealing with chemical exposures in food animals - Details major drug classes used in food animal production and their residue risks - Highlights efforts at harmonizing and the differences among areas like US, EU, Canada, Australia, South America, China, and Asia, where the issue of chemical exposures has significant impact on livestock products - Ties veterinary clinical practice and the use of these drugs in food animals with regulatory standards and mitigation practices Ronald Baynes is a Professor of Pharmacology and Director of the Center of Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics at the College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University and Fellow, American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics He has consulted for the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the US Environmental and Protection Agency, and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health on chemical exposure-related topics. Jim Riviere is The MacDonald Chair in Veterinary Medicine and University Distinguished Professor at Kansas State University. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, serves on its Food and Nutrition Board, and is a fellow of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 336
    Erscheinungsdatum: 06.08.2014
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781118872826
    Verlag: Wiley
    Größe: 6626 kBytes
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Strategies for Reducing Drug and Chemical Residues in Food Animals

Importance of Veterinary Drug Residues

Ronald E. Baynes1 and Jim E. Riviere2

1 Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

2 Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA
1.1 Introduction

Food animal production over the last 50–60 years has significantly increased with the implementation of modern genetics, breeding, husbandry, and nutrition. During this same time period, livestock producers have relied on the use of veterinary drugs as one of several strategies to ensure economic viability of the industry. This need for increased use of veterinary drugs, and especially antimicrobial drugs, has been linked to changes in standard livestock practices where the objective is to increase feed and space efficiency and to a need to generate greater quantities of meat, milk, and egg products in an ever increasing competitive global market. While the consumer appreciates the need to increase livestock production and generate reliable and affordable animal-derived products, this is tempered by the consumers' requirement that the food items be "free" of drugs or chemicals introduced in the production system. The wide availability of related information via the Internet has exposed the consumer to useful facts but all too often to controversial statements and hypotheses with very little factual support from the scientific literature regarding the prevalence of drug residues in our food, how veterinary drugs are used, and what safeguards are implemented to reduce these residues. This introductory chapter will briefly review the role of drugs in modern livestock production, quality assurance programs, adverse human health effects of drug residues, and economic impact of these residues to the livestock industry.
1.2 Veterinary Drug Use in Livestock

Modern livestock production can be described as involving intensive animal production practices that often use veterinary drugs at subtherapeutic level in feed and water in order to improve feed efficiency for growth and production and maintain animal health. In such close animal–animal contact practices, prevention of disease is more important than treating for disease that would require therapeutic levels (higher doses) of the drug. The United States defines subtherapeutic use of an antimicrobial as a feed additive less than 200 g of drug per ton of feed.

Subtherapeutic drug use may take the form of (i) antimicrobials delivered to the animal as a feed or water additive and (ii) hormones delivered via ear implants or feed additives.

The antimicrobials approved in the United States and EU to be used in this legal manner often belong to the tetracycline, sulfonamide, or macrolide class of antimicrobials. Several EU countries and others banned or limited the use of these drugs as growth promoters as there are concerns that their use promotes the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. This cause-and-effect relationship is continually being debated across various jurisdictions; although epidemiological evidence continues to accumulate, definitive conclusions from rigorous research in livestock production systems has not been forthcoming. This issue will be further explored in this and other chapters of this book.

The use of hormone growth promoters in livestock has also been a controversial debate as various regulatory authorities in different jurisdictions regulate these drugs in a different manner. The U.S. FDA has approved the legal use of 17β-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone, and zeranol as solid ear implants and melengestrol acetate (feedlot heifers) and ractopamine (swine) as feed additives. Compared to the United States, t

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