Bits of History - from the Big Bang to Now
Dick de Jounge, has an MS in Mechanical Engineering and has worked many years in Swedish industry, and 25 years as self-employed in the United States. He has published the books "Dear Grandkids, the Future is Yours", "Framtiden tillhör våra barn och barnbarn", and 'Lite historia - från Big Bang till Higgs'. This book is an expanded translation of the last one.
Bits of History - from the Big Bang to Now
HISTORY OF RADIO AND TELEVISION
Few inventions have had as much impact on contemporary society as radio and television. However, neither radio nor television were invented by a single inventor, instead many people working together and alone over the years contributed to the evolution of radio and television.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 - 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. Hertz proved the theory by engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures that ruled out all other known wireless phenomena. He laid the groundwork for the vacuum tube, which became the foundation for the future development of radio, telephone, telegraph, and even television. He was one of the first people to demonstrate the existence of electric waves.
The scientific SI unit of frequency - one per second - was named the "hertz" (Hz) in his honor.
Guglielmo Marconi (1874 - 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer who from the age of 21 mainly worked in England. He is known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law, and a radio telegraph system. He is often credited as the inventor of radio, and in 1904 The U.S. Patent Office reversed its decision, awarding Marconi a patent for the invention of radio.
Although the title "inventor of radio" is popularly attributed to Marconi, his was just the practical application of 80 years of scientific advancement in the field, including the predictions of Michael Faraday, the theoretical work of James Clerk Maxwell, and the experimental demonstrations of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. In 1910, the first public radio broadcast was an experimental transmission of a live Metropolitan Opera House performance of several famous opera singers.
When it comes to television, early inventors attempted to build a mechanical television system that was invented in 1884 by the German technician and inventor Paul Nipkow (1860 - 1940) using a rotating-disc technology to transmit pictures over wire. Paul Nipkow was the first person to discover television's scanning principle, in which the light intensities of small portions of an image are successively analyzed and transmitted.
Other scientists attempted to build an electronic television system using a cathode ray tube developed independently in 1907 by the English inventor A.A. Campbell-Swinton (1863 - 1930) and Russian scientist Boris Rosing (1869 - 1933). Electronic television systems worked better and eventually replaced mechanical systems. They are based on the development of the cathode ray tube, which is the picture tube found in classical TV sets . Karl F. Braun (1850 - 1918) a German inventor and physicist invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope (CRT) in 1897, which contributed significantly to the development of radio and television technology. Braun shared with Marconi the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy."
Electronic television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco in 1927. The system was designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth (1906 - 1971), a 21-year-old inventor who had lived in a house without electricity until he was 14. While still in high school, Farnsworth had begun to conceive of a system that could capture moving images in a form that could be coded onto radio waves and then transformed back into a picture on a screen. Boris Rosing in Russia had conducted some crude experiments in transmitting images 16 years before Farnsworth's first success. Farnsworth's invention, which scanned images with a beam of electrons, is the direct ancesto