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Speech as Interface in Web Applications for Visually Challenged von Verma, Prabhat (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 07.12.2015
  • Verlag: GRIN Publishing
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Speech as Interface in Web Applications for Visually Challenged

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2013 in the subject Computer Science - Miscellaneous, , course: Computer Science and Engineering - Human Computer Interaction, language: English, abstract: This book addresses to some of the important issues, challenges and approaches related to web accessibility in context of visually impaired users. Speech is a convenient medium of interaction for visually challenged users, Internet accessibility for them is made possible by providing an alternative speech-based interface for human-computer interaction. Problems associated with speech based web interfaces are manifold. Most of the web content available today has been designed for the visual interface via graphical browsers. Screen Readers have been the primary tool for using internet by visually impaired. Unfortunately, most of the popular and workable screen readers are proprietary and bear a heavy price tag. Thus, Design and development of powerful yet affordable speech based interfaces would be certainly helpful in enhancing the overall Quality of Life of visually challenged.

Dr. Prabhat Verma is currently working as an Assistant Professor in Computer Science and Engineering Department at Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Knapur, India. He has an experience of more than 12 Years in the field of Computer Science. He has published several research papers in Journals of Repute. His area of interest includes Object Technologies, Artificial Intelligence, Human Computer Interaction and Web Content Management.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 124
    Erscheinungsdatum: 07.12.2015
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9783668103597
    Verlag: GRIN Publishing
    Serie: Akademische Schriftenreihe Bd.V311374
    Größe: 3761kBytes
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Speech as Interface in Web Applications for Visually Challenged

Chapter 2 Background Work

Speech is a convenient medium of interaction for visually challenged users. Internet accessibility is made possible for them by providing an alternative speech-based interface for human-computer interaction. Visually challenged users generally have no difficulty in using ordinary keyboards. Thus, command based user input using speech recognition is generally not required by the visually challenged users since its incorporation may adversely affect reliability and usability of the browsing system.

2.1 Problems and Issues

2.1.1 Accessibility, Usability and Navigability

Accessibility, Usability and Navigability are the terms that creates lot confusion and are frequently encountered in related literature. Therefore, it is important to unambiguously define them before proceeding further. Each is a tripartite [5] as it relates the three aspects: Web Page(s), Assistive tool and Blind User. This fact is depicted in Figure 1. These properties are defined in Table 1 from the aspect of each player concerned.

Accessibility refers to the ability of a user, despite disabilities or impairments, to use a resource. For Internet-based applications, accessibility means that all users can perceive, understand, navigate, interact with, and contribute to the Web [6]. Visually challenged users most often use the Internet for sending E-mails, looking for some specific information like reservation inquiry or examination result inquiry, mailing, Web based learning, accessing news sites or for chat. They may also wish to make some transaction on internet like purchase of an item or e-ticket. But due to various reasons inherent to the web pages as well as tools used to access these pages, they are not able to perform these tasks independently. As a result, they may require performing uncomfortable travels. The concept of e-Learning is well perceived by the visually challenged since it helps them in overcoming the basic problems of commuting by bringing the class room to their home: thereby circumventing any bias that human instructors or fellow students might have. Audio-only e-Learning through Internet can be much helpful for them but realizing such a system has major challenges for describing visual elements like photographs, graphics, diagrams and charts.

The first role to ensure accessibility, usability and navigability in webpage(s) lies with Web Authors/Web Developers who are expected to follow the accessibility guidelines during website creation. Assistive tools can, most often function correctly if the webpage is compliant to the accessibility guideline. Unfortunately, this is not always the case since a large percentage of web pages have inaccessible contents. Thus, the role of assistive tools becomes important in terms of enhancing accessibility, usability and navigability of the webpage(s) so that blind users may be able to access and use them. However, they are required to become proficient in using the assistive tool as well as to find out tricks and ways to use the web against all odds. Thus, they also have to play a role to efficiently use the assistive tool.

Fig. 2.1: The three aspects of Accessibility, Usability and Navigability

Table 2.1: Accessibility, Usability and Navigability defined from the three perspectives

2.1.2 Keyboard based Accessibility Windows Application Accessibility Vs Web Page Accessibility

The key difference between developing accessible desktop applications and developing accessible Web applications is that, while the Microsoft Win32 application program interface allows the writing of accessibility members on arbitrary controls, HTML is read-only f

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