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Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters

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Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters

Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters provides an integrated look at major atmospheric disasters that have had and continue to have major implications for many of the world's people, such as floods and droughts. . This volume takes a geoscientific approach to the topic, while also covering current thinking about some directly relevant social scientific issues that can affect lives and property. Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters also contains new insights about how climate change affects hazardous processes. For the first time, information on the many diverse topics relevant to professionals is aggregated into one volume. Contains contributions from experts in the field selected by a world-renowned editorial board Cutting-edge discussion of natural hazard topics that affect the lives and livelihoods of millions of humans worldwide Numerous full-color tables, GIS maps, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs of hazardous processes in action


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 305
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9780123964700
    Verlag: Elsevier Reference Monographs
    Größe: 15396 kBytes
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Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters

Chapter 1 Flood Processes and Hazards

Alberto Viglione, and Magdalena Rogger Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria Abstract

Floods are classified into different types depending on where the water comes from and on their generating processes. Several types of floods are described in this chapter, including river floods, flash floods, dam-break floods, ice-jam floods, glacial-lake floods, urban floods, coastal floods, and hurricane-related floods. Examples of each flood type are provided and their dominant processes are discussed. Hydrological flood processes such as runoff generation and routing depend on the type of landscape, soils, geology, vegetation, and channel characteristics. They are driven and modulated by climate through precipitation and temperature. Also evapotranspiration and snow processes play a critical role determining, for example, before-event soil saturation. These processes vary widely around the world and, even at the same location, they vary between events. The chapter reviews methods for estimating the probability and magnitude of floods as a measure of the flood hazard. It is argued that understanding the flood processes for each of the flood types is a prerequisite for estimating the flood hazard reliably. This is particularly important if one expects the landscape or climate characteristics to change in the future.

Black swan; Dominant processes; Flood frequency hydrology; Flood types 1.1. Introduction

People have settled close to water bodies (rivers, lakes, and the sea) since the beginning of time and this has been for understandable reasons. Living close to water bodies was economically advantageous. Water bodies have long been the easiest transport corridors and the most important communication routes. Flood plains along rivers and near lakes were also attractive because of the fertility of the land and the easy access to irrigation water. Accessibility to the sea meant accessibility to (at that time) unlimited food availability. For all these reasons, the link between people and water bodies has always been strong and is still today ( Di Baldassarre et al., 2013 ). However, living close to water bodies also involves the risk of flooding. Floods are among the most devastating natural (and sometimes human-produced) threats on Earth ( Ohl and Tapsell, 2000 ). Floods involve inundations, i.e., submerged land from overflowing rivers and lakes when water overtops or breaks levees, from the sea because of high tides, and/or develop in otherwise dry areas due to accumulation of heavy rainfall. The risk at which people are exposed depends on many factors: the magnitude of flood events, how frequently they occur, the susceptibility of the people and their properties to be adversely affected, and their preparedness in the emergency situations caused by floods. In more technical worlds, flood risk is the result of the interactions between the flood hazard (which combines the flood probability and magnitude) and the vulnerability of the people and their properties. In this chapter, we focus on the flood hazard, whereas vulnerability is covered in Chapter 1.5. Both hazard and vulnerability very much depend on the type of flood and the processes determining it. In Section 1.2 , floods of different types are discussed: river floods, flash floods, dam-break floods, ice-jam floods, glacial-lake floods, urban floods, coastal floods, and hurricane-related floods. We illustrate their process mechanisms through real world examples. For instance, most flood types are driven and modulated by climate, through precipitation and temperature, and by the landscape, since runoff generation and routing depend on soi

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