Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation in Detail and Methods of Strengthening it and Its Components
Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Medicine - Neurology, Psychiatry, Addiction, grade: B, University of New Orleans, language: English, abstract: Introduction. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation refers to a method of hastening or promoting neuromuscular functioning mechanisms by stimulating its proprioceptors. This method of treatment is functions on the belief that all individuals including those with disabilities have varied existing potentials. Various motion combinations are used to facilitate neuromuscular mechanism. These include primitive, postural and righting reflexes. The motion combinations employed include passive movements, eccentric, isometric and concentric contractions (Alter 2004). One of the philosophies regulating the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation is mobilizing individuals' potentials through the provision of intensive training, patients' active participation in planning and provision of care, and promotion of self-training. Furthermore, the health care professionals should promote positive approach including provision of care free of pain, provision of direct and indirect treatment among others (Hoeger et al 2008). However, PNF techniques functions on several principles including, resistance, inhibition, facilitation, and irradiation reflexes. Facilitation techniques increase motor neurons excitation increasing stimuli within the neuromuscular neurons which cause depolarization or recruitment of extra motor neurons. Furthermore, inhibitory techniques decrease the excitation of the motor neurons leading to hyperpolarization of these neurons hence decrease in the amount of neurons which are actively discharging. Inhibition and facilitation cannot be separated because they work synergistically to one another. Inhibitory techniques increases flexibility through the inhibition of motor neurons of the antagonists muscles hence relaxation and reduced active resistance to the agonists muscle movement (Alter 2004). Furthermore, facilitation and inhibitory techniques creates muscular resistance characterized by active contractions. Irradiation reflexes increases spread of neuromuscular excitations throughout the central nervous system causing contractions in the synergistic muscles. In addition, stretch reflexes increase the effectiveness of these techniques by producing varied excitation in the motor neurons causing relaxation of the muscles under different conditions. Furthermore, PNF techniques employ the techniques of active contractions (Hoeger et al 2008).
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