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Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing von Atulasimha, Jayasimha (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 03.02.2016
  • Verlag: Wiley
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Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing

Nanomagnetic and spintronic computing devices are strong contenders for future replacements of CMOS. This is an important and rapidly evolving area with the semiconductor industry investing significantly in the study of nanomagnetic phenomena and in developing strategies to pinpoint and regulate nanomagnetic reliably with a high degree of energy efficiency. This timely book explores the recent and on-going research into nanomagnetic-based technology. Key features: Detailed background material and comprehensive descriptions of the current state-of-the-art research on each topic. Focuses on direct applications to devices that have potential to replace CMOS devices for computing applications such as memory, logic and higher order information processing. Discusses spin-based devices where the spin degree of freedom of charge carriers are exploited for device operation and ultimately information processing. Describes magnet switching methodologies to minimize energy dissipation. Comprehensive bibliographies included for each chapter enabling readers to conduct further research in this field.
Written by internationally recognized experts, this book provides an overview of a rapidly burgeoning field for electronic device engineers, field-based applied physicists, material scientists and nanotechnologists. Furthermore, its clear and concise form equips readers with the basic understanding required to comprehend the present stage of development and to be able to contribute to future development. Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing is also an indispensable resource for students and researchers interested in computer hardware, device physics and circuits design. Professor Supriyo Bandyopadhyay, Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia, USA Supriyo Bandyopadhyay is Commonwealth Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Commonwealth University where he directs the Quantum Device Laboratory. Prof. Bandyopadhyay has authored and co-authored over 300 research publications and he is currently a member of the editorial board of seven international journals. He is the current Chair of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Technical Committee on Spintronics (Nanotechnology Council), and past-chair of the Technical Committee on Compound Semiconductor Devices and Circuits (Electron Device Society). He has been an IEEE Electron Device Society Distinguished Lecturer and served as a Vice President of the IEEE Nanotechnology Council. Prof. Bandyopadhyay is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Institute of Physics, American Physical Society, the Electrochemical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Professor Jayasimha Atulasimha, Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia, USA Jayasimha Atulasimha is Qimonda Associate Professor of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering with a courtesy appointment in Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Virginia Commonwealth University, where he directs the Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and Magnetic Devices (M 3 ) laboratory. He has authored or coauthored over 60 scientific articles including more than 40 journal publications on magnetostrictive materials, magnetization dynamics, and nanomagnetic computing and has given several invited talks at conferences, workshops and universities in the USA and abroad on these topics. His research interests include nanomagnetism, spintronics, magnetostrictive materials and nanomagnet-based computing devices. He received the NSF CAREER Award for 2013-2018. He currently serves on the Technical Committees for Spintronics, IEEE Nanotechnology Council, ASME Adaptive Structures and Material Systems, Device Research Conference (DRC), and as a Focus Topic organizer for the APS topical group on magnetism (GMAG). He is a member of ASME, APS and an IEEE Senior Member.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 352
    Erscheinungsdatum: 03.02.2016
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781118869246
    Verlag: Wiley
    Größe: 18915 kBytes
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Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing

Introduction to Spintronic and Nanomagnetic Computing Devices

Jayasimha Atulasimha1 and Supriyo Bandyopadhyay2

1Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, US

2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA

This book focuses on recent developments in two important and interrelated information processing device concepts and related phenomena: "spintronic devices" and "nanomagnetic devices." In the former, individual electron spins are coherently manipulated as they flow through the active region of a device to elicit device functionality. In the latter, an ensemble of spins in a nanostructure acts collectively as a giant classical spin (a single domain nanomagnet) owing to mutual exchange coupling, and the giant spin polarization (or the magnetization of the nanomagnet) is switched between stable orientations to store and/or process binary data. These information processing paradigms have attracted attention because of their low energy dissipation, nonvolatility and relatively fast speed of operation.
1.1 Spintronic Devices

An iconic device in the field of spintronics is the Datta-Das [1] Spin Field Effect Transistor (SPINFET) in which the current flowing between two of the terminals (source and drain) is modulated with a gate potential that does not change the carrier concentration in the channel of the transistor, but instead changes the spin polarization of the carriers. The source and drain contacts are ferromagnets that act as spin polarizers and analyzers. The source injects spin polarized electrons, the gate voltage precesses the spins in the channel owing to Rashba spin-orbit interaction [2] and the drain selectively transmits electrons depending on the degree of precession they have undergone in the channel. Thus, by varying the gate voltage, one can vary the source-to-drain current and realize transistor action. The operation of the transistor is briefly explained in Figure 1.1 .

Figure 1.1 Operation of a Datta-Das SPINFET. The source injects spin polarized electrons, polarized in the direction of source-to-drain current (x-direction). When the gate voltage is zero, the spins do not precess and are fully transmitted by the drain resulting in maximum (on) current. When the gate voltage is turned on, it produces an electric field Ey in the y-direction due to Rashba spin-orbit interaction that results in an effective magnetic field of flux density Bz in the z-direction. This field causes the electrons to precess about itself. The left panel shows a one-dimensional SPINFET and the right panel a two-dimensional SPINFET.

There are several impediments to practical room temperature implementation of the Datta-Das SPINFET. Foremost among them is the inefficiency of the spin polarizer and analyzer. The inability of ferromagnet/semiconductor interfaces to inject and detect spins with high efficiency results in low on-off ratios of the drain current [3]. The on-off ratio is also reduced significantly if the channel of the SPINFET is not strictly one-dimensional [4], that is, if it is not a quantum wire with only the lowest carrier subband occupied. Finally, coherent transportation and manipulation of spins over the length of the channel at room temperature is challenging. The channel has to be sufficiently long to allow at least one-half period of spin precession and retaining spin coherence over that length is difficult at room temperature. Recently, coherent spin transport was demonstrated in a strictly one-dimensional InSb nanowire at room temperature [5], raising hopes for the Datta-Das transistor. That, together with the vast improvement in spin injection and detection efficiencies made possible by the use of quantum point contacts [6] as sou

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