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Radio Frequency Identification and Sensors From RFID to Chipless RFID von Perret, Etienne (eBook)

  • Erscheinungsdatum: 04.12.2014
  • Verlag: Wiley-IEEE Press
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Radio Frequency Identification and Sensors

This book deals with the field of identification and sensors, more precisely the possibility of collecting information remotely with RF waves (RFID). The book introduces the technology of chipless RFID starting from classical RFID and barcode, and explores the field of identification and sensors without wire, without batteries, without chip, and with tags that can even be printed on paper. A technique for automatic design of UHF RFID tags is presented , aiming at making the tags as insensitive as possible to the environment (with the ability to increase the reading range reliability), or, conversely, making them sensitive in order to produce sensors, meanwhile keeping their unique ID. The RFID advantages are discussed, along with its numerous features, and comparisons with the barcode technology are presented. After that, the new chipless RFID technology is introduced on the basis of the previous conclusions. Original technological approaches are introduced and discussed in order to demonstrate the practical and economic potential of the chipless technology.


    Format: ePUB
    Kopierschutz: AdobeDRM
    Seitenzahl: 100
    Erscheinungsdatum: 04.12.2014
    Sprache: Englisch
    ISBN: 9781119054085
    Verlag: Wiley-IEEE Press
    Größe: 7518 kBytes
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Radio Frequency Identification and Sensors


Introduction to RFID

1.1. General introduction to RFID

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a major technology which, for more than a decade now, has undergone significant development in terms of applications. The traceability market includes a large number of families of tags, with each of these families fulfilling very specific needs. These tags include a label composed of an antenna and a medium for information (generally using a silicon chip); some contain a battery (active tag) and some do not (passive tag) [FIN 10, PAR 09, TED 09]. The operating principle is that of a classic wireless communication device. The reader is used to establish an interface between the identifier (ID) contained in the tag on the one side, and, on the other side, a database is used to access other information on the tag. The reader transmits a frame according to a standardized protocol, and the signal is then modulated. In the case of ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID, the tag receives part of this radio-frequency (RF) wave. The tag's antenna then collects the signal and transmits it to the RFID chip ( Figure 1.1 ). For passive RFID tags, the power transmitted by the wave generated by the reader enables the tag to be fed, and thus to function. In addition, the reader transmits the carrier wave continuously, while the frame is sent periodically. In this case, the tag's antenna performs a type of double function: (1) ensuring the tag's power supply and (2) enabling the transmission of the "useful" signal to the chip to be processed.

We will look next at the tags that are most often found on the RFID market, specifically passive tags. Similarly, we will focus mainly on tags that function on UHF frequencies and therefore operate in remote field zones, and can enable communication over distances as small as 10 m. This family of tags is widely deployed, although this deployment has been slowed down mainly by current significant limitations in RFID technology, which will be discussed below. Throughout this book, we will also explore the importance of the tag antenna in an RFID system.

Figure 1.1 . Operation schema of an RFID system. The reader, most often linked to a database, questions the tag, located here on a packing box. In this way, the reader can recover the tag's ID, contained in the RFID chip located in the center of the tag

Antenna design is at the heart of many of the issues currently being confronted by UHF RFID. This is all the more true, because the design of antennas for UHF RFID tags is different in many ways from classic RF antenna design. Before going into specific details about these differences, note the following two points: (1) the near environment, i.e. the object on which the tag is positioned for its use and which is unknown to the designer, although the tag must be able to function for the largest possible number of applications, for reasons of cost-effectiveness and (2) the antenna is connected to a chip which, when in operation, varies its input impedance between two values. Based on this, a question arises for which antenna impedance value must be taken into account in order to optimize communication between the reader and the tag. We will see that the answer is not so obvious, and it becomes even less clear when we consider that the two impedance states of the chip are dependent on the frequency and the power received. The answer to this question depends largely on the intended application. Likewise, and this is the most interesting aspect, work on this point is still in progress. Indeed, numerous studies worldwide are focused on the development of this technology, which remains highly promising, that is with extremely high development potential.

If we return to the "antenna" aspect, we can see that the design of antennas compatible with the expected applications in the domain of traceability arouses a great deal of i

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